You are suppose to know how to write a Makefile
already. If you don't, you should learn it as soon as
possible because your Makefile must work in all
your project submissions. There are a few tutorials on
make on the web. Here are links to some of them.
I have not really read through these pages so I cannot
guarantee their correctness.
Please be aware that if you transfer a Makefile from a Windows
environment to a UNIX environment, chances are, it will not work.
The reason is that a line in a text file in Windows ends with "\r\n"
while a line in a text file in UNIX ends with just "\n". The extra
"\r" can confuse make on UNIX machines. But I'm sure you can
write a small program to fix that.
Compiling Your Code
If you are writing your program in C, you should use gcc
as your compiler, rather than cc. Gcc supports
function prototypes and other ANSI extensions, which you should
use in your programs.
The option -Wall turns on most of the useful
Compiling with this option will find many simple mistakes in your programs.
On many platforms you also need to link the network and socket
libraries to your program.
We will evaluate your submission by copying all the files you have
submitted into an empty directory and then type the following command:
(If an individual project spec has more specific way of producing
executables, you must follow it.)
Minor variation (such as using gmake) is allowed, but you must
describe in details how to compile your code near the top of
your README file. Requiring a visual tool to compile your code
is not allowed.
If this does not produce the desired executable(s), you will
probably lose a lot of points.
You may lose quite a few points if the grader has to debug and
modify your Makefile in order to get your code to compile.
How many points you will lose depends on
how hard it is for the grader to get your Makefile to work.
You may even receive a score of zero if we cannot get your Makefile
Here are some additional requirements (sorry about redundancy
with the project specs):
By the way,
if you think you have a perfectly working Makefile
but when you run "make", you get an error message saying it
does not know how to make a target, it's probably because you
have created or modified your Makefile on a Windows machine
and what you have is a DOS/Windows text file, which is not
quite compatible with a Unix text file. In this case, you
can either use "gmake" or run "dos2unix"
to convert a DOS/Windows text file into a Unix text file.
- You are required to use
to compile your source code. You must divide your source code into
separate source files in a logical way.
Even if everything can fit in a single source file, you must
force yourself to cut it up or you will lose a lot of points!
- You must not put the bulk of your code in header files!
Header files are not where you are suppose to put your source code
because you will lose the ability to debug your code.
- When the following command is invoked at the UNIX prompt:
all binary files created during compilation
(.o files, .gch files, executable files, etc.) must be removed.
- You must use -Wall (or equivalent) in your Makefile
when you compile with gcc and you must eliminate
all compile-time warning messages.
When you compile, if you get warning messages saying that certain
.c or .h file has no newline at end of file,
then it's cause by the same problem (i.e., you have created these
files in Windows). Please run "dos2unix"
to convert such a DOS/Windows text file into a Unix text file.
A README file is the documentation of your submission.
The filename you should use for a README file must be in the
form "x-README.txt" where
"x" is an appropriate name for the assignment.
The README file you submit MUST include the following:
To make your documentation more complete, your README file may optionally include the following:
- A section clearly labeled as "BUILD" - This section contains instructions for creating the executable for your assignment.
If all the grader has to do is to type "make", you are still required to say so in this section.
Please note that minor variation on "make" is acceptable without penalty.
- A section clearly labeled as "GRADING" - This section contains your assessment of your submission.
For every item in the grading guidelines, you must have a corresponding entry in this section.
You may need to provide additional information to help the grader to grade the corresponding item.
- A section clearly labeled as "BUGS" - If there is a test that you don't want the grader to run because
it may cause you to lose points elsewhere, please clearly state it in this section. If you leave this section
blank, the grade will perform all tests and make deductions accordingly.
It is highly recommended (to reminize points loss)
that you start with the template provided in the corresponding programming assignment spec.
Not including an README file or having an README file that does not satisfy the requirements
can result in a lot of points loss.
- Any design decisions you made that is not in the spec.
- Any deviation from the spec. (Although deviation from the spec is not allowed, it may be the case
that you've ran out of time. Even though you will end up losing points, you should document it anyway.)
You should not include anything from the spec in your
README file. But if you want to (so that you have a self-contained
document), please mark it clearly so the grader can easily skip such
How do you make sure that make would work? It's actually
- Create a Makefile first time you need to compile your code.
Don't wait till the last minute.
- If you do your development on Windows and expect your code to
just compile and run on
you will soon find out
how unrealistic your assumption is. I would leave at least
2 days for porting for small projects and 5 days for porting
- Write a rule in your Makefile to generate a submittable
file in the right format. Do this early! You can also think of
this as generating a backup copy of what you have done so far.
Copy the backup copy to another place in case you accidentically
erase all your files.
- Testing! Verify your submissions.
Create an empty directory on nunki.usc.edu,
unpack your test submission, and type make in it!
If it doesn't work, fix it right away.
- Have a working copy ready for submission. When it's 2 hours away
from the deadline and your code is not completing working, you
should probably consider doing the following.
- Fix your code so that it compiles and runs.
- Create a submission from your working code and keep it as
a backup in case you can't fix your bugs when deadline comes.
- Repeat this as you fix more bugs.